Azraq, 125 km east of Amman

4th Century AD

Residents – 1 JOD
Non-residents – 3 JOD


North 31° 52′ 49″
East 36° 49′ 39″


Qasr Azraq

Qasr Azraq is often included on day trips from Amman to the Desert Castles, along with Qasr Kharana and Qasr Amra, both east of the capital and reached via Highway 40. Visitors can explore most of the castle, both upstairs and downstairs, except for some sections closed off while the rock is shored up. Its strategic value came from the nearby oasis, the only water source in a vast desert region. The settlement was known in antiquity as Basie and the Romans were the first to make military use of the site, and later an early mosque was built in the middle.

It did not assume its present form until an extensive renovation and expansion by the Ayyubids in the 13th century, using locally quarried basalt which makes the castle darker than most other buildings in the area. Later, it would be used by the Ottoman armies during that empire’s hegemony over the region. During the Arab Revolt, T.E. Lawrence based his operations here in 1917–18, an experience he wrote about in his book Seven Pillars of Wisdom. The connection to “Lawrence of Arabia” has been one of the castle’s major draws for tourists.

The castle is constructed of the local black basalt and is a square structure with 80 metre long walls encircling a large central courtyard. In design, it is very close to the slightly smaller fort of Deir Al-Kahf. Like Deir Al-Kahf and Qasr Al-Hallabat, it almost certainly had rooms of two storeys. In the middle of the courtyard is a small mosque that may date from Umayyad times. At each corner of the outer wall, there is an oblong tower. The main entrance is composed of a single massive hinged slab of granite, which leads to a vestibule where one can see carved into the pavement the remains of a Roman board game. Some of the original sculptures and carvings could still be found around the castle, including bas-relief animals and Latin script.

I was wondering why they wrote in a continuous string of letters, with no spaces, and then it occurred to me that if I had to write on a stone, I might want to save space too. The Romans also carved amazing doors in the castle, some as heavy as 3 tons (6,000 pounds or 2,722 kilograms). The doors sat in grooves carved into the framework and were still able to swing open and closed when we visited.

Qasr Azraq
Qasr Azraq

The strategic significance of the castle is that it lies in the middle of the Azraq oasis, the only permanent source of fresh water in approximately 12,000 square kilometres (4,600 sq mi) of the desert. Several civilizations are known to have occupied the site for its strategic value in this remote and arid desert area. The area was inhabited by the Nabataean people and around 200 CE fell under the control of the Romans. The Romans built a stone structure using the local basalt stone that formed a basis for later constructions on the site, a structure that was equally used by the Byzantine and Umayyad empires.

Qasr al-Azraq underwent its final major stage of building in 1237 CE, when ‘Izz ad-Din Aybak, an emir of the Ayyubids, redesigned and fortified it. The fortress in its present form dates to this period.

In the 16th century, the Ottoman Turks stationed a garrison there, and T. E. Lawrence (Lawrence of Arabia) made the fortress his desert headquarters during the winter of 1917, during the Great Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire. His office was in the chamber above the entrance gatehouse. It had an additional advantage in modern warfare: the flat nearby desert was an ideal place to build an airfield.


Timeline of Qasr Azraq History

3rd Century AD

Roman Period

The black basalt fort, strategically located in the middle of the oasis, and on a major desert trade route was built by the Romans in the 3rd century AD.
3rd Century AD
8th Century AD

Umayyad Period

The Umayyad caliph Walid II transformed it into his favourite hunting residence. The mosque in the courtyard, the well and the stables are from this period.
8th Century AD
20th Century AD

Arab Revolt

During the Arab Revolt in 1917–1918, T.E. Lawrence based his operations in the castle, an experience he wrote about in his book Seven Pillars of Wisdom. The connection to “Lawrence of Arabia” has been one of the castle’s major draws for tourists.
20th Century AD

Nearby Attractions

Go back in time to the era of military campaigns and desert warfare as you explore Jordan’s imposing …
Stretching east from Amman is a desert region bewildering in its size and ruthless climate …
In 1978, RSCN established Azraq Wetland Reserve to conserve the uniquely precious oasis located …
Shaumari Wildlife Reserve was established in 1975 by the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature …
Located on a low basalt bridge overlooking Wadi Uweinid, at the Middle Badia, 15 km southwest …

Desert Castles

Qasr Azraq Reviews

PHOTO Gallery

Map Legend

8000 – 4000 BC

3500 – 1200 BC

1200 – 539 BC

332 – 168 BC

168 BC – 106 AD

106 – 324 AD

324 – 636 AD

661 – 750 AD

1099 – 1263 AD

1250 – 1918 AD

8000 - 4000 BC
Alex Travel
3500 - 1200 BC
1200 - 539 BC
Alex Travel
332 - 168 BC
Alex Travel
168 BC - 106 AD
106 - 324 AD
324 - 636 AD
Alex Travel
661 - 750 AD
Alex Travel
1099 - 1263 AD
1250 - 1918 AD

Neolithic Period

Bronze Age

Iron Age

Hellenistic Period

Nabatean Period

Roman Period

Byzantine Period

Umayyad Period

Crusades / Ayyubid Period

Mumluk / Ottoman Period