Eastern Desert, 40 km east of Amman

8th Century AD

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North 31° 48′ 47″
East 36° 18′ 57″


Qasr Mshash

Although this rather large Umayyad settlement was once a grand city in the desert, today Mshash sadly lies in virtual ruin. Standing on the very edge of the Wadi and blending into the environment, making it hard to spot, Mshash forms an extensive complex with a great variety of structures, whose most outstanding feature is the comparably large number of hydraulic installations. These include reservoirs, cisterns, and dams, which are found nearby and farther away from the central area of the complex.

Qasr Mshash

The site of Qasr Mshash covers 2 sq km and can be divided into two areas of use with a distance of 1.5 km from each other. Preliminary results of the topographical survey and geophysical research gave evidence of a core area which might have been used as a caravan halt and surrounding structures of different use. The central part of the site consists of a caravanserai-like building, a bath and a large reservoir which lies right of the track and half-buried in the sand – only the southern wall and plastered settling tank which runs into the west end are now visible. This place is surrounded by domestic structures which form a small settlement, probably used for the supply of the caravan halt.

Investigations on the water supply have revealed preliminarily that only the winter rains that drained in small watercourses from the north into Wadi Mshash were used.

There was sufficient slope for these streamlets to flow into the settlement’s cisterns and reservoirs; in addition, they could be controlled more easily than the considerably larger Wadi Mshash. The latter lies distinctly lower than the facilities for storing water so that the use of this water necessitated a means of raising water, such as a water wheel or lift, of which however no traces are present today. Further investigations are necessary to determine the conduits to the water storage facilities.

Mshash itself is a small 26 sq m building with 13 rooms around the courtyard and the entrance in the east. Its function as a halt on the way from Amman/Philadelphia and Wadi Sirhan has to be seen in relation to other Desert Castles nearby, like Qasr Al-Muwaqqar, Qasr Kharana and Qasr Amra. These places are more or less coeval and are located at a distance of 15 to 20 km from each other.

The cooperation project between the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute and the Jordan Department of Antiquities (DoA) began in 2011 and has several and different aims: the documentation of all archaeological sites within a radius of 10 km from the settlement, the creation of a new plan of the entire settlement site that should serve as the basis for a 3D-model, and investigations on the water supply for the site.

Qasr Mshash

Qasr Mshash has often been assigned to the group of Early Islamic “Desert Castles”. This designation signifies palace-like complexes located in remote regions of the desert, which served mostly as temporary seats of rulers of the Umayyad times (661–750 A.D.). The structure addressed as ‘Qasr’ in Mshash, a square building with a side length of 26 m, lies on the north bank of Wadi Mshash and is still partly preserved.

A. Musil was the first to visit this complex in 1901 and to make a short description of it. A. Stein documented it in detail during his Limes project in 1939. The site was visited anew and described only later, at the beginning of the 1980s, by G. King, during a large-scale survey on the documentation of early Byzantine and Early Islamic ruins in northern Jordan. The excavations that followed in 1982 and 1983 under the direction of G. Bisheh were focused on the Qasr, the bath and one cistern. In 2011 work was resumed in Qasr Mshash once again, foremost with questions about the water supply of this place, whose structure and function was hitherto hardly known.


Timeline of Qasr Mshash History

8th Century AD

Umayyad Period

Qasr Mshash was built by Umayyads in the 8th century AD to serve as a resting place for high government officials on their way to Hejaz.
8th Century AD
16th Century AD

Ottoman Period

There is evidence the Qasr was used in the post-Umayyad Period although there is no clear indication of the purpose it served.
16th Century AD
21st Century AD

Present Time

Only at the beginning of the 1980s was a precise recording of the site and its surroundings made by G. King. Based on King’s results, excavations were undertaken in 1982 and 1983 under the direction of G. Bisheh.
21st Century AD

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Desert Castles

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Map Legend

8000 – 4000 BC

3500 – 1200 BC

1200 – 539 BC

332 – 168 BC

168 BC – 106 AD

106 – 324 AD

324 – 636 AD

661 – 750 AD

1099 – 1263 AD

1250 – 1918 AD

8000 - 4000 BC
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3500 - 1200 BC
1200 - 539 BC
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332 - 168 BC
Alex Travel
168 BC - 106 AD
106 - 324 AD
324 - 636 AD
Alex Travel
661 - 750 AD
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1099 - 1263 AD
1250 - 1918 AD

Neolithic Period

Bronze Age

Iron Age

Hellenistic Period

Nabatean Period

Roman Period

Byzantine Period

Umayyad Period

Crusades / Ayyubid Period

Mumluk / Ottoman Period